From jair-ed at isi.edu Wed Jan 2 00:00:00 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Wed, 02 Jan 2013 02:00:00 -0600
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 7 new articles published by JAIR
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Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
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I. New JAIR Articles
J. Garcia and F. Fernandez (2012)
"Safe Exploration of State and Action Spaces in Reinforcement Learning",
Volume 45, pages 515-564
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Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the important problem of safe exploration in reinforcement learning. While reinforcement learning is well-suited to domains with complex transition dynamics and high-dimensional state-action spaces, an additional challenge is posed by the need for safe and efficient exploration. Traditional exploration techniques are not particularly useful for solving dangerous tasks, where the trial and error process may lead to the selection of actions whose execution in some states may result in damage to the learning system (or any other system). Consequently, when an agent begins an interaction with a dangerous and high-dimensional state-action space, an important question arises; namely, that of how to avoid (or at least minimize) damage caused by the exploration of the state-action space. We introduce the PI-SRL algorithm which safely improves suboptimal albeit robust behaviors for continuous state and action control tasks and which efficiently learns from the experience gained from the environment. We evaluate the proposed method in four complex tasks: automatic car parking, pole-balancing, helicopter hovering, and business management.
R. I. Brafman and G. Shani (2012)
"Replanning in Domains with Partial Information and Sensing Actions",
Volume 45, pages 565-600
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Abstract:
Replanning via determinization is a recent, popular approach for online planning in MDPs. In this paper we adapt this idea to classical, non-stochastic domains with partial information and sensing actions, presenting a new planner: SDR (Sample, Determinize, Replan). At each step we generate a solution plan to a classical planning problem induced by the original problem. We execute this plan as long as it is safe to do so. When this is no longer the case, we replan. The classical planning problem we generate is based on the translation-based approach for conformant planning introduced by Palacios and Geffner. The state of the classical planning problem generated in this approach captures the belief state of the agent in the original problem. Unfortunately, when this method is applied to planning problems with sensing, it yields a non-deterministic planning problem that is typically very large. Our main contribution is the introduction of state sampling techniques for overcoming these two problems. In addition, we introduce a novel, lazy, regression-based method for querying the agent's belief state during run-time. We provide a comprehensive experimental evaluation of the planner, showing that it scales better than the state-of-the-art CLG planner on existing benchmark problems, but also highlighting its weaknesses with new domains. We also discuss its theoretical guarantees.
G. de Cooman and E. Miranda (2012)
"Irrelevant and independent natural extension for sets of desirable gambles",
Volume 45, pages 601-640
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Abstract:
The results in this paper add useful tools to the theory of sets of desirable gambles, a growing toolbox for reasoning with partial probability assessments. We investigate how to combine a number of marginal coherent sets of desirable gambles into a joint set using the properties of epistemic irrelevance and independence. We provide formulas for the smallest such joint, called their independent natural extension, and study its main properties. The independent natural extension of maximal coherent sets of desirable gambles allows us to define the strong product of sets of desirable gambles. Finally, we explore an easy way to generalise these results to also apply for the conditional versions of epistemic irrelevance and independence. Having such a set of tools that are easily implemented in computer programs is clearly beneficial to fields, like AI, with a clear interest in coherent reasoning under uncertainty using general and robust uncertainty models that require no full specification.
K. Radinsky, S. Davidovich and S. Markovitch (2012)
"Learning to Predict from Textual Data",
Volume 45, pages 641-684
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Abstract:
Given a current news event, we tackle the problem of generating plausible predictions of future events it might cause. We present a new methodology for modeling and predicting such future news events using machine learning and data mining techniques. Our Pundit algorithm generalizes examples of causality pairs to infer a causality predictor. To obtain precisely labeled causality examples, we mine 150 years of news articles and apply semantic natural language modeling techniques to headlines containing certain predefined causality patterns. For generalization, the model uses a vast number of world knowledge ontologies. Empirical evaluation on real news articles shows that our Pundit algorithm performs as well as non-expert humans.
H. T. Dinh, H. T. Dinh, L. Michel and A. Russell (2012)
"The Time Complexity of A* with Approximate Heuristics on Multiple-Solution Search Spaces",
Volume 45, pages 685-729
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Abstract:
We study the behavior of the A* search algorithm when coupled with a heuristic h satisfying (1-epsilon1)h* <= h <=(1+epsilon2)h*, where 0 <= epsilon1, epsilon2 < 1 are small constants and h* denotes the optimal cost to a solution. We prove a rigorous, general upper bound on the time complexity of A* search on trees that depends on both the accuracy of the heuristic and the distribution of solutions. Our upper bound is essentially tight in the worst case; in fact, we show nearly matching lower bounds that are attained even by non-adversarially chosen solution sets induced by a simple stochastic model. A consequence of our rigorous results is that the effective branching factor of the search will be reduced as long as epsilon1+epsilon2 < 1 and the number of near-optimal solutions in the search tree is not too large. We go on to provide an upper bound for A* search on graphs and in this context establish a bound on running time determined by the spectrum of the graph.
We then experimentally explore to what extent our rigorous upper bounds predict the behavior of A* in some natural, combinatorially-rich search spaces. We begin by applying A* to solve the knapsack problem with near-accurate admissible heuristics constructed from an efficient approximation algorithm for this problem. We additionally apply our analysis of A* search for the partial Latin square problem, where we can provide quite exact analytic bounds on the number of near-optimal solutions. These results demonstrate a dramatic reduction in effective branching factor of A* when coupled with near-accurate heuristics in search spaces with suitably sparse solution sets.
M. Bodirsky and M. Hils (2012)
"Tractable Set Constraints",
Volume 45, pages 731-759
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Abstract:
Many fundamental problems in artificial intelligence, knowledge representation, and verification involve reasoning about sets and relations between sets and can be modeled as set constraint satisfaction problems (set CSPs). Such problems are frequently intractable, but there are several important set CSPs that are known to be polynomial-time tractable. We introduce a large class of set CSPs that can be solved in quadratic time. Our class, which we call EI, contains all previously known tractable set CSPs, but also some new ones that are of crucial importance for example in description logics. The class of EI set constraints has an elegant universal-algebraic characterization, which we use to show that every set constraint language that properly contains all EI set constraints already has a finite sublanguage with an NP-hard constraint satisfaction problem.
M. R. Costa-jussà, C. A. Henríquez and R. E. Banchs (2012)
"Evaluating Indirect Strategies for Chinese?Spanish Statistical Machine Translation",
Volume 45, pages 761-780
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Abstract:
Although, Chinese and Spanish are two of the most spoken languages in the world, not much research has been done in machine translation for this language pair. This paper focuses on investigating the state-of-the-art of Chinese-to-Spanish statistical machine translation (SMT), which nowadays is one of the most popular approaches to machine translation. For this purpose, we report details of the available parallel corpus which are Basic Traveller Expressions Corpus (BTEC), Holy Bible and United Nations (UN). Additionally, we conduct experimental work with the largest of these three corpora to explore alternative SMT strategies by means of using a pivot language. Three alternatives are considered for pivoting: cascading, pseudo-corpus and triangulation. As pivot language, we use either English, Arabic or French. Results show that, for a phrase-based SMT system, English is the best pivot language between Chinese and Spanish. We propose a system output combination using the pivot strategies which is capable of outperforming the direct translation strategy. The main objective of this work is motivating and involving the research community to work in this important pair of languages given their demographic impact.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Fri Feb 1 23:01:33 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Sat, 02 Feb 2013 01:01:33 -0600
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 4 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
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I. New JAIR Articles
P. Nightingale, I. P. Gent, C. Jefferson and I. Miguel (2013)
"Short and Long Supports for Constraint Propagation",
Volume 46, pages 1-45
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Abstract:
Special-purpose constraint propagation algorithms frequently make implicit use of short supports -- by examining a subset of the variables, they can infer support (a justification that a variable-value pair may still form part of an assignment that satisfies the constraint) for all other variables and values and save substantial work -- but short supports have not been studied in their own right. The two main contributions of this paper are the identification of short supports as important for constraint propagation, and the introduction of HaggisGAC, an efficient and effective general purpose propagation algorithm for exploiting short supports. Given the complexity of HaggisGAC, we present it as an optimised version of a simpler algorithm ShortGAC. Although experiments demonstrate the efficiency of ShortGAC compared with other general-purpose propagation algorithms where a compact set of short supports is available, we show theoretically and experimentally that HaggisGAC is even better. We also find that HaggisGAC performs better than GAC-Schema on full-length supports. We also introduce a variant algorithm HaggisGAC-Stable, which is adapted to avoid work on backtracking and in some cases can be faster and have significant reductions in memory use. All the proposed algorithms are excellent for propagating disjunctions of constraints. In all experiments with disjunctions we found our algorithms to be faster than Constructive Or and GAC-Schema by at least an order of magnitude, and up to three orders of magnitude.
E. Huang and R. E. Korf (2013)
"Optimal Rectangle Packing: An Absolute Placement Approach",
Volume 46, pages 47-87
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Abstract:
We consider the problem of finding all enclosing rectangles of minimum area that can contain a given set of rectangles without overlap. Our rectangle packer chooses the x-coordinates of all the rectangles before any of the y-coordinates. We then transform the problem into a perfect-packing problem with no empty space by adding additional rectangles. To determine the y-coordinates, we branch on the different rectangles that can be placed in each empty position. Our packer allows us to extend the known solutions for a consecutive-square benchmark from 27 to 32 squares. We also introduce three new benchmarks, avoiding properties that make a benchmark easy, such as rectangles with shared dimensions. Our third benchmark consists of rectangles of increasingly high precision. To pack them efficiently, we limit the rectangles' coordinates and the bounding box dimensions to the set of subset sums of the rectangles' dimensions. Overall, our algorithms represent the current state-of-the-art for this problem, outperforming other algorithms by orders of magnitude, depending on the benchmark.
C. Sauper and R. Barzilay (2013)
"Automatic Aggregation by Joint Modeling of Aspects and Values",
Volume 46, pages 89-127
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Abstract:
We present a model for aggregation of product review snippets by joint aspect identification and sentiment analysis. Our model simultaneously identifies an underlying set of ratable aspects presented in the reviews of a product (e.g., sushi and miso for a Japanese restaurant) and determines the corresponding sentiment of each aspect. This approach directly enables discovery of highly-rated or inconsistent aspects of a product. Our generative model admits an efficient variational mean-field inference algorithm. It is also easily extensible, and we describe several modifications and their effects on model structure and inference. We test our model on two tasks, joint aspect identification and sentiment analysis on a set of Yelp reviews and aspect identification alone on a set of medical summaries. We evaluate the performance of the model on aspect identification, sentiment analysis, and per-word labeling accuracy. We demonstrate that our model outperforms applicable baselines by a considerable margin, yielding up to 32% relative error reduction on aspect identification and up to 20% relative error reduction on sentiment analysis.
M. Guo, E. Markakis, K. R. Apt and V. Conitzer (2013)
"Undominated Groves Mechanisms",
Volume 46, pages 129-163
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Abstract:
The family of Groves mechanisms, which includes the well-known VCG mechanism (also known as the Clarke mechanism), is a family of efficient and strategy-proof mechanisms. Unfortunately, the Groves mechanisms are generally not budget balanced. That is, under such mechanisms, payments may flow into or out of the system of the agents, resulting in deficits or reduced utilities for the agents. We consider the following problem: within the family of Groves mechanisms, we want to identify mechanisms that give the agents the highest utilities, under the constraint that these mechanisms must never incur deficits.
We adopt a prior-free approach. We introduce two general measures for comparing mechanisms in prior-free settings. We say that a non-deficit Groves mechanism M individually dominates another non-deficit Groves mechanism M' if for every type profile, every agent's utility under M is no less than that under M', and this holds with strict inequality for at least one type profile and one agent. We say that a non-deficit Groves mechanism M collectively dominates another non-deficit Groves mechanism M' if for every type profile, the agents' total utility under M is no less than that under M', and this holds with strict inequality for at least one type profile. The above definitions induce two partial orders on non-deficit Groves mechanisms. We study the maximal elements corresponding to these two partial orders, which we call the individually undominated mechanisms and the collectively undominated mechanisms, respectively.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Tue Apr 2 02:22:23 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Tue, 02 Apr 2013 04:22:23 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 9 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
----------------------------------------------------------------
I. New JAIR Articles
V. Qazvinian, D. R. Radev, S. M. Mohammad, B. Dorr, D. Zajic, M. Whidby and T. Moon (2013)
"Generating Extractive Summaries of Scientific Paradigms",
Volume 46, pages 165-201
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Abstract:
Researchers and scientists increasingly find themselves in the position of having to quickly understand large amounts of technical material. Our goal is to effectively serve this need by using bibliometric text mining and summarization techniques to generate summaries of scientific literature. We show how we can use citations to produce automatically generated, readily consumable, technical extractive summaries. We first propose C-LexRank, a model for summarizing single scientific articles based on citations, which employs community detection and extracts salient information-rich sentences. Next, we further extend our experiments to summarize a set of papers, which cover the same scientific topic. We generate extractive summaries of a set of Question Answering (QA) and Dependency Parsing (DP) papers, their abstracts, and their citation sentences and show that citations have unique information amenable to creating a summary.
H. Zhao, X. Zhang and C. Kit (2013)
"Integrative Semantic Dependency Parsing via Efficient Large-scale Feature Selection",
Volume 46, pages 203-233
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Abstract:
Semantic parsing, i.e., the automatic derivation of meaning representation such as an instantiated predicate-argument structure for a sentence, plays a critical role in deep processing of natural language. Unlike all other top systems of semantic dependency parsing that have to rely on a pipeline framework to chain up a series of submodels each specialized for a specific subtask, the one presented in this article integrates everything into one model, in hopes of achieving desirable integrity and practicality for real applications while maintaining a competitive performance. This integrative approach tackles semantic parsing as a word pair classification problem using a maximum entropy classifier. We leverage adaptive pruning of argument candidates and large-scale feature selection engineering to allow the largest feature space ever in use so far in this field, it achieves a state-of-the-art performance on the evaluation data set for CoNLL-2008 shared task, on top of all but one top pipeline system, confirming its feasibility and effectiveness.
N. Goernitz, M. Kloft, K. Rieck and U. Brefeld (2013)
"Toward Supervised Anomaly Detection",
Volume 46, pages 235-262
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Abstract:
Anomaly detection is being regarded as an unsupervised learning task as anomalies stem from adversarial or unlikely events with unknown distributions. However, the predictive performance of purely unsupervised anomaly detection often fails to match the required detection rates in many tasks and there exists a need for labeled data to guide the model generation. Our first contribution shows that classical semi-supervised approaches, originating from a supervised classifier, are inappropriate and hardly detect new and unknown anomalies. We argue that semi-supervised anomaly detection needs to ground on the unsupervised learning paradigm and devise a novel algorithm that meets this requirement. Although being intrinsically non-convex, we further show that the optimization problem has a convex equivalent under relatively mild assumptions. Additionally, we propose an active learning strategy to automatically filter candidates for labeling. In an empirical study on network intrusion detection data, we observe that the proposed learning methodology requires much less labeled data than the state-of-the-art, while achieving higher detection accuracies.
S. Ordyniak and S. Szeider (2013)
"Parameterized Complexity Results for Exact Bayesian Network Structure Learning",
Volume 46, pages 263-302
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Abstract:
Bayesian network structure learning is the notoriously difficult problem of discovering a Bayesian network that optimally represents a given set of training data. In this paper we study the computational worst-case complexity of exact Bayesian network structure learning under graph theoretic restrictions on the (directed) super-structure. The super-structure is an undirected graph that contains as subgraphs the skeletons of solution networks. We introduce the directed super-structure as a natural generalization of its undirected counterpart. Our results apply to several variants of score-based Bayesian network structure learning where the score of a network decomposes into local scores of its nodes.
Results: We show that exact Bayesian network structure learning can be carried out in non-uniform polynomial time if the super-structure has bounded treewidth, and in linear time if in addition the super-structure has bounded maximum degree. Furthermore, we show that if the directed super-structure is acyclic, then exact Bayesian network structure learning can be carried out in quadratic time. We complement these positive results with a number of hardness results. We show that both restrictions (treewidth and degree) are essential and cannot be dropped without loosing uniform polynomial time tractability (subject to a complexity-theoretic assumption). Similarly, exact Bayesian network structure learning remains NP-hard for "almost acyclic" directed super-structures. Furthermore, we show that the restrictions remain essential if we do not search for a globally optimal network but aim to improve a given network by means of at most k arc additions, arc deletions, or arc reversals (k-neighborhood local search).
A. Metodi, M. Codish and P. J. Stuckey (2013)
"Boolean Equi-propagation for Concise and Efficient SAT Encodings of Combinatorial Problems",
Volume 46, pages 303-341
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Abstract:
We present an approach to propagation-based SAT encoding of combinatorial problems, Boolean equi-propagation, where constraints are modeled as Boolean functions which propagate information about equalities between Boolean literals. This information is then applied to simplify the CNF encoding of the constraints. A key factor is that considering only a small fragment of a constraint model at one time enables us to apply stronger, and even complete, reasoning to detect equivalent literals in that fragment. Once detected, equivalences apply to simplify the entire constraint model and facilitate further reasoning on other fragments. Equi-propagation in combination with partial evaluation and constraint simplification provide the foundation for a powerful approach to SAT-based finite domain constraint solving. We introduce a tool called BEE (Ben-Gurion Equi-propagation Encoder) based on these ideas and demonstrate for a variety of benchmarks that our approach leads to a considerable reduction in the size of CNF encodings and subsequent speed-ups in SAT solving times.
A. Coles, A. Coles, M. Fox and D. Long (2013)
"A Hybrid LP-RPG Heuristic for Modelling Numeric Resource Flows in Planning",
Volume 46, pages 343-412
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Abstract:
Although the use of metric fluents is fundamental to many practical planning problems, the study of heuristics to support fully automated planners working with these fluents remains relatively unexplored. The most widely used heuristic is the relaxation of metric fluents into interval-valued variables --- an idea first proposed a decade ago. Other heuristics depend on domain encodings that supply additional information about fluents, such as capacity constraints or other resource-related annotations.
A particular challenge to these approaches is in handling interactions between metric fluents that represent exchange, such as the transformation of quantities of raw materials into quantities of processed goods, or trading of money for materials. The usual relaxation of metric fluents is often very poor in these situations, since it does not recognise that resources, once spent, are no longer available to be spent again.
We present a heuristic for numeric planning problems building on the propositional relaxed planning graph, but using a mathematical program for numeric reasoning. We define a class of producer--consumer planning problems and demonstrate how the numeric constraints in these can be modelled in a mixed integer program (MIP). This MIP is then combined with a metric Relaxed Planning Graph (RPG) heuristic to produce an integrated hybrid heuristic. The MIP tracks resource use more accurately than the usual relaxation, but relaxes the ordering of actions, while the RPG captures the causal propositional aspects of the problem. We discuss how these two components interact to produce a single unified heuristic and go on to explore how further numeric features of planning problems can be integrated into the MIP. We show that encoding a limited subset of the propositional problem to augment the MIP can yield more accurate guidance, partly by exploiting structure such as propositional landmarks and propositional resources. Our results show that the use of this heuristic enhances scalability on problems where numeric resource interaction is key in finding a solution.
N. A. Snooke and M. H. Lee (2013)
"Qualitative Order of Magnitude Energy-Flow-Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis",
Volume 46, pages 413-447
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Abstract:
This paper presents a structured power and energy-flow-based qualitative modelling approach that is applicable to a variety of system types including electrical and fluid flow. The modelling is split into two parts.
Power flow is a global phenomenon and is therefore naturally represented and analysed by a network comprised of the relevant structural elements from the components of a system. The power flow analysis is a platform for higher-level behaviour prediction of energy related aspects using local component behaviour models to capture a state-based representation with a global time. The primary application is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a form of exaggeration reasoning is used, combined with an order of magnitude representation to derive the worst case failure modes.
The novel aspects of the work are an order of magnitude(OM) qualitative network analyser to represent any power domain and topology, including multiple power sources, a feature that was not required for earlier specialised electrical versions of the approach. Secondly, the representation of generalised energy related behaviour as state-based local models is presented as a modelling strategy that can be more vivid and intuitive for a range of topologically complex applications than qualitative equation-based representations.The two-level modelling strategy allows the broad system behaviour coverage of qualitative simulation to be exploited for the FMEA task, while limiting the difficulties of qualitative ambiguity explanation that can arise from abstracted numerical models. We have used the method to support an automated FMEA system with examples of an aircraft fuel system and domestic a heating system discussed in this paper.
F. A. Oliehoek, M. T. J. Spaan, C. Amato and S. Whiteson (2013)
"Incremental Clustering and Expansion for Faster Optimal Planning in Dec-POMDPs",
Volume 46, pages 449-509
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Abstract:
This article presents the state-of-the-art in optimal solution methods for decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs), which are general models for collaborative multiagent planning under uncertainty. Building off the generalized multiagent A* (GMAA*) algorithm, which reduces the problem to a tree of one-shot collaborative Bayesian games (CBGs), we describe several advances that greatly expand the range of Dec-POMDPs that can be solved optimally. First, we introduce lossless incremental clustering of the CBGs solved by GMAA*, which achieves exponential speedups without sacrificing optimality. Second, we introduce incremental expansion of nodes in the GMAA* search tree, which avoids the need to expand all children, the number of which is in the worst case doubly exponential in the node's depth. This is particularly beneficial when little clustering is possible. In addition, we introduce new hybrid heuristic representations that are more compact and thereby enable the solution of larger Dec-POMDPs. We provide theoretical guarantees that, when a suitable heuristic is used, both incremental clustering and incremental expansion yield algorithms that are both complete and search equivalent. Finally, we present extensive empirical results demonstrating that GMAA*-ICE, an algorithm that synthesizes these advances, can optimally solve Dec-POMDPs of unprecedented size.
M. Ono, B. C. Williams and Lars Blackmore (2013)
"Probabilistic Planning for Continuous Dynamic Systems under Bounded Risk",
Volume 46, pages 511-577
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Abstract:
This paper presents a model-based planner called the Probabilistic Sulu Planner or the p-Sulu Planner, which controls stochastic systems in a goal directed manner within user-specified risk bounds. The objective of the p-Sulu Planner is to allow users to command continuous, stochastic systems, such as unmanned aerial and space vehicles, in a manner that is both intuitive and safe. To this end, we first develop a new plan representation called a chance-constrained qualitative state plan (CCQSP), through which users can specify the desired evolution of the plant state as well as the acceptable level of risk. An example of a CCQSP statement is ``go to A through B within 30 minutes, with less than 0.001% probability of failure." We then develop the p-Sulu Planner, which can tractably solve a CCQSP planning problem. In order to enable CCQSP planning, we develop the following two capabilities in this paper: 1) risk-sensitive planning with risk bounds, and 2) goal-directed planning in a continuous domain with temporal constraints. The first capability is to ensures that the probability of failure is bounded. The second capability is essential for the planner to solve problems with a continuous state space such as vehicle path planning. We demonstrate the capabilities of the p-Sulu Planner by simulations on two real-world scenarios: the path planning and scheduling of a personal aerial vehicle as well as the space rendezvous of an autonomous cargo spacecraft.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Wed May 1 08:07:56 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Wed, 01 May 2013 10:07:56 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 4 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
----------------------------------------------------------------
I. New JAIR Articles
D. H. Wolpert and J. W. Bono (2013)
"Predicting Behavior in Unstructured Bargaining with a Probability Distribution",
Volume 46, pages 579-605
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Abstract:
In experimental tests of human behavior in unstructured bargaining games, typically many joint utility outcomes are found to occur, not just one. This suggests we predict the outcome of such a game as a probability distribution. This is in contrast to what is conventionally done (e.g, in the Nash bargaining solution), which is predict a single outcome. We show how to translate Nash's bargaining axioms to provide a distribution over outcomes rather than a single outcome. We then prove that a subset of those axioms forces the distribution over utility outcomes to be a power-law distribution. Unlike Nash's original result, our result holds even if the feasible set is finite. When the feasible set is convex and comprehensive, the mode of the power law distribution is the Harsanyi bargaining solution, and if we require symmetry it is the Nash bargaining solution. However, in general these modes of the joint utility distribution are not the experimentalist's Bayes-optimal predictions for the joint utility. Nor are the bargains corresponding to the modes of those joint utility distributions the modes of the distribution over bargains in general, since more than one bargain may result in the same joint utility. After introducing distributional bargaining solution concepts, we show how an external regulator can use them to optimally design an unstructured bargaining scenario. Throughout we demonstrate our analysis in computational experiments involving flight rerouting negotiations in the National Airspace System. We emphasize that while our results are formulated for unstructured bargaining, they can also be used to make predictions for noncooperative games where the modeler knows the utility functions of the players over possible outcomes of the game, but does not know the move spaces the players use to determine those outcomes.
T. P. Michalak, K. V. Aadithya, P. L. Szczepanski, B. Ravindran and N. R. Jennings (2013)
"Efficient Computation of the Shapley Value for Game-Theoretic Network Centrality",
Volume 46, pages 607-650
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Abstract:
The Shapley value---probably the most important normative payoff division scheme in coalitional games---has recently been advocated as a useful measure of centrality in networks. However, although this approach has a variety of real-world applications (including social and organisational networks, biological networks and communication networks), its computational properties have not been widely studied. To date, the only practicable approach to compute Shapley value-based centrality has been via Monte Carlo simulations which are computationally expensive and not guaranteed to give an exact answer. Against this background, this paper presents the first study of the computational aspects of the Shapley value for network centralities. Specifically, we develop exact analytical formulae for Shapley value-based centrality in both weighted and unweighted networks and develop efficient (polynomial time) and exact algorithms based on them. We empirically evaluate these algorithms on two real-life examples (an infrastructure network representing the topology of the Western States Power Grid and a collaboration network from the field of astrophysics) and demonstrate that they deliver significant speedups over the Monte Carlo approach. For instance, in the case of unweighted networks our algorithms are able to return the exact solution about 1600 times faster than the Monte Carlo approximation, even if we allow for a generous 10% error margin for the latter method.
B. Bagheri Hariri, D. Calvanese, M. Montali, G. De Giacomo, R. De Masellis and P. Felli (2013)
"Description Logic Knowledge and Action Bases",
Volume 46, pages 651-686
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Abstract:
Description logic Knowledge and Action Bases (KAB) are a mechanism for providing both a semantically rich representation of the information on the domain of interest in terms of a description logic knowledge base and actions to change such information over time, possibly introducing new objects. We resort to a variant of DL-Lite where the unique name assumption is not enforced and where equality between objects may be asserted and inferred. Actions are specified as sets of conditional effects, where conditions are based on epistemic queries over the knowledge base (TBox and ABox), and effects are expressed in terms of new ABoxes. In this setting, we address verification of temporal properties expressed in a variant of first-order mu-calculus with quantification across states. Notably, we show decidability of verification, under a suitable restriction inspired by the notion of weak acyclicity in data exchange.
S. Cai, K. Su, C. Luo and A. Sattar (2013)
"NuMVC: An Efficient Local Search Algorithm for Minimum Vertex Cover",
Volume 46, pages 687-716
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Abstract:
The Minimum Vertex Cover (MVC) problem is a prominent NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem of great importance in both theory and application. Local search has proved successful for this problem. However, there are two main drawbacks in state-of-the-art MVC local search algorithms. First, they select a pair of vertices to exchange simultaneously, which is time-consuming. Secondly, although using edge weighting techniques to diversify the search, these algorithms lack mechanisms for decreasing the weights. To address these issues, we propose two new strategies: two-stage exchange and edge weighting with forgetting. The two-stage exchange strategy selects two vertices to exchange separately and performs the exchange in two stages. The strategy of edge weighting with forgetting not only increases weights of uncovered edges, but also decreases some weights for each edge periodically. These two strategies are used in designing a new MVC local search algorithm, which is referred to as NuMVC.
We conduct extensive experimental studies on the standard benchmarks, namely DIMACS and BHOSLIB. The experiment comparing NuMVC with state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms show that NuMVC is at least competitive with the nearest competitor namely PLS on the DIMACS benchmark, and clearly dominates all competitors on the BHOSLIB benchmark. Also, experimental results indicate that NuMVC finds an optimal solution much faster than the current best exact algorithm for Maximum Clique on random instances as well as some structured ones. Moreover, we study the effectiveness of the two strategies and the run-time behaviour through experimental analysis.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Sat Jun 1 00:48:31 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Sat, 01 Jun 2013 02:48:31 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 6 new articles published by JAIR
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Dear JAIR subscriber:
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I. New JAIR Articles
G. Wang, Q. Song, H. Sun, X. Zhang, B. Xu and Y. Zhou (2013)
"A Feature Subset Selection Algorithm Automatic Recommendation Method",
Volume 47, pages 1-34
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Abstract:
Many feature subset selection (FSS) algorithms have been proposed, but not all of them are appropriate for a given feature selection problem. At the same time, so far there is rarely a good way to choose appropriate FSS algorithms for the problem at hand. Thus, FSS algorithm automatic recommendation is very important and practically useful. In this paper, a meta learning based FSS algorithm automatic recommendation method is presented. The proposed method first identifies the data sets that are most similar to the one at hand by the k-nearest neighbor classification algorithm, and the distances among these data sets are calculated based on the commonly-used data set characteristics. Then, it ranks all the candidate FSS algorithms according to their performance on these similar data sets, and chooses the algorithms with best performance as the appropriate ones. The performance of the candidate FSS algorithms is evaluated by a multi-criteria metric that takes into account not only the classification accuracy over the selected features, but also the runtime of feature selection and the number of selected features. The proposed recommendation method is extensively tested on 115 real world data sets with 22 well-known and frequently-used different FSS algorithms for five representative classifiers. The results show the effectiveness of our proposed FSS algorithm recommendation method.
M. Aramon Bajestani and J. C. Beck (2013)
"Scheduling a Dynamic Aircraft Repair Shop with Limited Repair Resources",
Volume 47, pages 35-70
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Abstract:
We address a dynamic repair shop scheduling problem in the context of military aircraft fleet management where the goal is to maintain a full complement of aircraft over the long-term. A number of flights, each with a requirement for a specific number and type of aircraft, are already scheduled over a long horizon. We need to assign aircraft to flights and schedule repair activities while considering the flights requirements, repair capacity, and aircraft failures. The number of aircraft awaiting repair dynamically changes over time due to failures and it is therefore necessary to rebuild the repair schedule online. To solve the problem, we view the dynamic repair shop as successive static repair scheduling sub-problems over shorter time periods. We propose a complete approach based on the logic-based Benders decomposition to solve the static sub-problems, and design different rescheduling policies to schedule the dynamic repair shop. Computational experiments demonstrate that the Benders model is able to find and prove optimal solutions on average four times faster than a mixed integer programming model. The rescheduling approach having both aspects of scheduling over a longer horizon and quickly adjusting the schedule increases aircraft available in the long term by 10% compared to the approaches having either one of the aspects alone.
S. Vesic (2013)
"Identifying the Class of Maxi-Consistent Operators in Argumentation",
Volume 47, pages 71-93
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Abstract:
Dung?s abstract argumentation theory can be seen as a general framework for non-monotonic reasoning. An important question is then: what is the class of logics that can be subsumed as instantiations of this theory? The goal of this paper is to identify and study the large class of logic-based instantiations of Dung?s theory which correspond to the maxi-consistent operator, i.e. to the function which returns maximal consistent subsets of an inconsistent knowledge base. In other words, we study the class of instantiations where very extension of the argumentation system corresponds to exactly one maximal consistent subset of the knowledge base. We show that an attack relation belonging to this class must be conflict-dependent, must not be valid, must not be conflict-complete, must not be symmetric etc. Then, we show that some attack relations serve as lower or upper bounds of the class (e.g. if an attack relation contains canonical undercut then it is not a member of this class). By using our results, we show for all existing attack relations whether or not they belong to this class. We also define new attack relations which are members of this class. Finally, we interpret our results and discuss more general questions, like: what is the added value of argumentation in such a setting? We believe that this work is a first step towards achieving our long-term goal, which is to better understand the role of argumentation and, particularly, the expressivity of logic-based instantiations of Dung-style argumentation frameworks.
J. C. Boerkoel Jr. and E. H. Durfee (2013)
"Distributed Reasoning for Multiagent Simple Temporal Problems",
Volume 47, pages 95-156
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Abstract:
This research focuses on building foundational algorithms for scheduling agents that assist people in managing their activities in environments where tempo and complex activity interdependencies outstrip people's cognitive capacity. We address the critical challenge of reasoning over individuals' interacting schedules to efficiently answer queries about how to meet scheduling goals while respecting individual privacy and autonomy to the extent possible. We formally define the Multiagent Simple Temporal Problem for naturally capturing and reasoning over the distributed but interconnected scheduling problems of multiple individuals. Our hypothesis is that combining bottom-up and top-down approaches will lead to effective solution techniques. In our bottom-up phase, an agent externalizes constraints that compactly summarize how its local subproblem affects other agents' subproblems, whereas in our top-down phase an agent proactively constructs and internalizes new local constraints that decouple its subproblem from others'. We confirm this hypothesis by devising distributed algorithms that calculate summaries of the joint solution space for multiagent scheduling problems, without centralizing or otherwise redistributing the problems. The distributed algorithms permit concurrent execution to achieve significant speedup over the current art and also increase the level of privacy and independence in individual agent reasoning. These algorithms are most advantageous for problems where interactions between the agents are sparse compared to the complexity of agents' individual problems.
R. Mourad, C. Sinoquet, N. L. Zhang, T. Liu and P. Leray (2013)
"A Survey on Latent Tree Models and Applications",
Volume 47, pages 157-203
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Abstract:
In data analysis, latent variables play a central role because they help provide powerful insights into a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from biological to human sciences. The latent tree model, a particular type of probabilistic graphical models, deserves attention. Its simple structure - a tree - allows simple and efficient inference, while its latent variables capture complex relationships. In the past decade, the latent tree model has been subject to significant theoretical and methodological developments. In this review, we propose a comprehensive study of this model. First we summarize key ideas underlying the model. Second we explain how it can be efficiently learned from data. Third we illustrate its use within three types of applications: latent structure discovery, multidimensional clustering, and probabilistic inference. Finally, we conclude and give promising directions for future researches in this field.
G. Tesauro, D. C. Gondek, J. Lenchner, J. Fan and J. M. Prager (2013)
"Analysis of Watson's Strategies for Playing Jeopardy!",
Volume 47, pages 205-251
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Abstract:
Major advances in Question Answering technology were needed for
IBM Watson to play Jeopardy! at championship level -- the show requires rapid-fire answers to challenging natural language questions, broad general knowledge, high precision, and accurate confidence estimates. In addition, Jeopardy! features four types of decision making carrying great strategic importance: (1) Daily Double wagering; (2) Final Jeopardy wagering; (3) selecting the next square when in control of the board; (4) deciding whether to attempt to answer, i.e., "buzz in." Using sophisticated strategies for these decisions, that properly account for the game state and future event probabilities, can significantly boost a player's overall chances to win, when compared with simple "rule of thumb" strategies.
This article presents our approach to developing Watson's game-playing strategies, comprising development of a faithful simulation model, and then using learning and Monte-Carlo methods within the simulator to optimize Watson's strategic decision-making. After giving a detailed description of each of our game-strategy algorithms, we then focus in particular on validating the accuracy of the simulator's predictions, and documenting performance improvements using our methods. Quantitative performance benefits are shown with respect to both simple heuristic strategies, and actual human contestant performance in historical episodes. We further extend our analysis of human play to derive a number of valuable and counterintuitive examples illustrating how human contestants may improve their performance on the show.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Tue Jul 2 00:07:02 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Tue, 02 Jul 2013 02:07:02 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 2 new articles published by JAIR
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Dear JAIR subscriber:
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I. New JAIR Articles
M. G. Bellemare, Y. Naddaf, J. Veness and M. Bowling (2013)
"The Arcade Learning Environment: An Evaluation Platform for General Agents",
Volume 47, pages 253-279
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Abstract:
In this article we introduce the Arcade Learning Environment (ALE): both a challenge problem and a platform and methodology for evaluating the development of general, domain-independent AI technology. ALE provides an interface to hundreds of Atari 2600 game environments, each one different, interesting, and designed to be a challenge for human players. ALE presents significant research challenges for reinforcement learning, model learning, model-based planning, imitation learning, transfer learning, and intrinsic motivation. Most importantly, it provides a rigorous testbed for evaluating and comparing approaches to these problems. We illustrate the promise of ALE by developing and benchmarking domain-independent agents designed using well-established AI techniques for both reinforcement learning and planning. In doing so, we also propose an evaluation methodology made possible by ALE, reporting empirical results on over 55 different games. All of the software, including the benchmark agents, is publicly available.
Y. Bachrach, E. Porat and J. S. Rosenschein (2013)
"Sharing Rewards in Cooperative Connectivity Games",
Volume 47, pages 281-311
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Abstract:
We consider how selfish agents are likely to share revenues derived from maintaining connectivity between important network servers. We model a network where a failure of one node may disrupt communication between other nodes as a cooperative game called the vertex Connectivity Game (CG). In this game, each agent owns a vertex, and controls all the edges going to and from that vertex. A coalition of agents wins if it fully connects a certain subset of vertices in the graph, called the primary vertices.
Power indices measure an agent's ability to affect the outcome of the game. We show that in our domain, such indices can be used to both determine the fair share of the revenues an agent is entitled to, and identify significant possible points of failure affecting the reliability of communication in the network. We show that in general graphs, calculating the Shapley and Banzhaf power indices is #P-complete, but suggest a polynomial algorithm for calculating them in trees.
We also investigate finding stable payoff divisions of the revenues in CGs, captured by the game theoretic solution of the core, and its relaxations, the epsilon-core and least core. We show a polynomial algorithm for computing the core of a CG, but show that testing whether an imputation is in the epsilon-core is coNP-complete. Finally, we show that for trees, it is possible to test for epsilon-core imputations in polynomial time.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Thu Aug 1 22:36:40 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Fri, 02 Aug 2013 00:36:40 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 8 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
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I. New JAIR Articles
P. R. Costa and L. M. Botelho (2013)
"Learning by Observation of Agent Software Images",
Volume 47, pages 313-349
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Abstract:
Learning by observation can be of key importance whenever agents sharing similar features want to learn from each other. This paper presents an agent architecture that enables software agents to learn by direct observation of the actions executed by expert agents while they are performing a task. This is possible because the proposed architecture displays information that is essential for observation, making it possible for software agents to observe each other.
The agent architecture supports a learning process that covers all aspects of learning by observation, such as discovering and observing experts, learning from the observed data, applying the acquired knowledge and evaluating the agent's progress. The evaluation provides control over the decision to obtain new knowledge or apply the acquired knowledge to new problems.
We combine two methods for learning from the observed information. The first one, the recall method, uses the sequence on which the actions were observed to solve new problems. The second one, the classification method, categorizes the information in the observed data and determines to which set of categories the new problems belong.
Results show that agents are able to learn in conditions where common supervised learning algorithms fail, such as when agents do not know the results of their actions a priori or when not all the effects of the actions are visible. The results also show that our approach provides better results than other learning methods since it requires shorter learning periods.
W. Faber, M. Truszczynski and S. Woltran (2013)
"Strong Equivalence of Qualitative Optimization Problems",
Volume 47, pages 351-391
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Abstract:
We introduce the framework of qualitative optimization problems (or, simply, optimization problems) to represent preference theories. The formalism uses separate modules to describe the space of outcomes to be compared (the generator) and the preferences on outcomes (the selector). We consider two types of optimization problems. They differ in the way the generator, which we model by a propositional theory, is interpreted: by the standard propositional logic semantics, and by the equilibrium-model (answer-set) semantics. Under the latter interpretation of generators, optimization problems directly generalize answer-set optimization programs proposed previously. We study strong equivalence of optimization problems, which guarantees their interchangeability within any larger context. We characterize several versions of strong equivalence obtained by restricting the class of optimization problems that can be used as extensions and establish the complexity of associated reasoning tasks. Understanding strong equivalence is essential for modular representation of optimization problems and rewriting techniques to simplify them without changing their inherent properties.
N. Taghipour, D. Fierens, J. Davis and H. Blockeel (2013)
"Lifted Variable Elimination: Decoupling the Operators from the Constraint Language",
Volume 47, pages 393-439
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Abstract:
Lifted probabilistic inference algorithms exploit regularities in the structure of graphical models to perform inference more efficiently. More specifically, they identify groups of interchangeable variables and perform inference once per group, as opposed to once per variable. The groups are defined by means of constraints, so the flexibility of the grouping is determined by the expressivity of the constraint language. Existing approaches for exact lifted inference use specific languages for (in)equality constraints, which often have limited expressivity. In this article, we decouple lifted inference from the constraint language. We define operators for lifted inference in terms of relational algebra operators, so that they operate on the semantic level (the constraints' extension) rather than on the syntactic level, making them language-independent. As a result, lifted inference can be performed using more powerful constraint languages, which provide more opportunities for lifting. We empirically demonstrate that this can improve inference efficiency by orders of magnitude, allowing exact inference where until now only approximate inference was feasible.
L. Cigler and B. Faltings (2013)
"Decentralized Anti-coordination Through Multi-agent Learning",
Volume 47, pages 441-473
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Abstract:
To achieve an optimal outcome in many situations, agents need to choose distinct actions from one another. This is the case notably in many resource allocation problems, where a single resource can only be used by one agent at a time. How shall a designer of a multi-agent system program its identical agents to behave each in a different way?
>From a game theoretic perspective, such situations lead to undesirable Nash equilibria. For example consider a resource allocation game in that two players compete for an exclusive access to a single resource. It has three Nash equilibria. The two pure-strategy NE are efficient, but not fair. The one mixed-strategy NE is fair, but not efficient. Aumann's notion of correlated equilibrium fixes this problem: It assumes a correlation device that suggests each agent an action to take.
However, such a "smart" coordination device might not be available. We propose using a randomly chosen, "stupid" integer coordination signal. "Smart" agents learn which action they should use for each value of the coordination signal.
We present a multi-agent learning algorithm that converges in polynomial number of steps to a correlated equilibrium of a channel allocation game, a variant of the resource allocation game. We show that the agents learn to play for each coordination signal value a randomly chosen pure-strategy Nash equilibrium of the game. Therefore, the outcome is an efficient correlated equilibrium. This CE becomes more fair as the number of the available coordination signal values increases.
N. Betzler, A. Slinko and J. Uhlmann (2013)
"On the Computation of Fully Proportional Representation",
Volume 47, pages 475-519
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Abstract:
We investigate two systems of fully proportional representation suggested by Chamberlin Courant and Monroe. Both systems assign a representative to each voter so that the "sum of misrepresentations" is minimized. The winner determination problem for both systems is known to be NP-hard, hence this work aims at investigating whether there are variants of the proposed rules and/or specific electorates for which these problems can be solved efficiently. As a variation of these rules, instead of minimizing the sum of misrepresentations, we considered minimizing the maximal misrepresentation introducing effectively two new rules. In the general case these "minimax" versions of classical rules appeared to be still NP-hard.
We investigated the parameterized complexity of winner determination of the two classical and two new rules with respect to several parameters. Here we have a mixture of positive and negative results: e.g., we proved fixed-parameter tractability for the parameter the number of candidates but fixed-parameter intractability for the number of winners.
For single-peaked electorates our results are overwhelmingly positive: we provide polynomial-time algorithms for most of the considered problems. The only rule that remains NP-hard for single-peaked electorates is the classical Monroe rule.
S. Joty, G. Carenini and R. T. Ng (2013)
"Topic Segmentation and Labeling in Asynchronous Conversations",
Volume 47, pages 521-573
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Abstract:
Topic segmentation and labeling is often considered a prerequisite for higher-level conversation analysis and has been shown to be useful in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. We present two new corpora of email and blog conversations annotated with topics, and evaluate annotator reliability for the segmentation and labeling tasks in these asynchronous conversations. We propose a complete computational framework for topic segmentation and labeling in asynchronous conversations. Our approach extends state-of-the-art methods by considering a fine-grained structure of an asynchronous conversation, along with other conversational features by applying recent graph-based methods for NLP. For topic segmentation, we propose two novel unsupervised models that exploit the fine-grained conversational structure, and a novel graph-theoretic supervised model that combines lexical, conversational and topic features. For topic labeling, we propose two novel (unsupervised) random walk models that respectively capture conversation specific clues from two different sources: the leading sentences and the fine-grained conversational structure. Empirical evaluation shows that the segmentation and the labeling performed by our best models beat the state-of-the-art, and are highly correlated with human annotations.
C. Bäckström and P. Jonsson (2013)
"A Refined View of Causal Graphs and Component Sizes: SP-Closed Graph Classes and Beyond",
Volume 47, pages 575-611
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Abstract:
The causal graph of a planning instance is an important tool for planning both in practice and in theory. The theoretical studies of causal graphs have largely analysed the computational complexity of planning for instances where the causal graph has a certain structure, often in combination with other parameters like the domain size of the variables. Chen and Giménez ignored even the structure and considered only the size of the weakly connected components. They proved that planning is tractable if the components are bounded by a constant and otherwise intractable. Their intractability result was, however, conditioned by an assumption from parameterised complexity theory that has no known useful relationship with the standard complexity classes. We approach the same problem from the perspective of standard complexity classes, and prove that planning is NP-hard for classes with unbounded components under an additional restriction we refer to as SP-closed. We then argue that most NP-hardness theorems for causal graphs are difficult to apply and, thus, prove a more general result; even if the component sizes grow slowly and the class is not densely populated with graphs, planning still cannot be tractable unless the polynomial hierachy collapses. Both these results still hold when restricted to the class of acyclic causal graphs. We finally give a partial characterization of the borderline between NP-hard and NP-intermediate classes, giving further insight into the problem.
T. Grinshpoun, A. Grubshtein, R. Zivan, A. Netzer and A. Meisels (2013)
"Asymmetric Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems",
Volume 47, pages 613-647
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Abstract:
Distributed Constraint Optimization (DCOP) is a powerful framework for representing and solving distributed combinatorial problems, where the variables of the problem are owned by different agents. Many multi-agent problems include constraints that produce different gains (or costs) for the participating agents. Asymmetric gains of constrained agents cannot be naturally represented by the standard DCOP model.
The present paper proposes a general framework for Asymmetric DCOPs (ADCOPs). In ADCOPs different agents may have different valuations for constraints that they are involved in. The new framework bridges the gap between multi-agent problems which tend to have asymmetric structure and the standard symmetric DCOP model. The benefits of the proposed model over previous attempts to generalize the DCOP model are discussed and evaluated.
Innovative algorithms that apply to the special properties of the proposed ADCOP model are presented in detail. These include complete algorithms that have a substantial advantage in terms of runtime and network load over existing algorithms (for standard DCOPs) which use alternative representations. Moreover, standard incomplete algorithms (i.e., local search algorithms) are inapplicable to the existing DCOP representations of asymmetric constraints and when they are applied to the new ADCOP framework they often fail to converge to a local optimum and yield poor results. The local search algorithms proposed in the present paper converge to high quality solutions. The experimental evidence that is presented reveals that the proposed local search algorithms for ADCOPs achieve high quality solutions while preserving a high level of privacy.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Wed Sep 4 04:10:52 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Wed, 04 Sep 2013 06:10:52 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 5 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
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I. New JAIR Articles
T. Leaute and B. Faltings (2013)
"Protecting Privacy through Distributed Computation in Multi-agent Decision Making",
Volume 47, pages 649-695
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Abstract:
As large-scale theft of data from corporate servers is becoming increasingly common, it becomes interesting to examine alternatives to the paradigm of centralizing sensitive data into large databases. Instead, one could use cryptography and distributed computation so that sensitive data can be supplied and processed in encrypted form, and only the final result is made known. In this paper, we examine how such a paradigm can be used to implement constraint satisfaction, a technique that can solve a broad class of AI problems such as resource allocation, planning, scheduling, and diagnosis. Most previous work on privacy in constraint satisfaction only attempted to protect specific types of information, in particular the feasibility of particular combinations of decisions. We formalize and extend these restricted notions of privacy by introducing four types of private information, including the feasibility of decisions and the final decisions made, but also the identities of the participants and the topology of the problem. We present distributed algorithms that allow computing solutions to constraint satisfaction problems while maintaining these four types of privacy. We formally prove the privacy properties of these algorithms, and show experiments that compare their respective performance on benchmark problems.
E. Burns, W. Ruml and M. B. Do (2013)
"Heuristic Search When Time Matters",
Volume 47, pages 697-740
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Abstract:
In many applications of shortest-path algorithms, it is impractical to find a provably optimal solution; one can only hope to achieve an appropriate balance between search time and solution cost that respects the user's preferences. Preferences come in many forms; we consider utility functions that linearly trade-off search time and solution cost. Many natural utility functions can be expressed in this form. For example, when solution cost represents the makespan of a plan, equally weighting search time and plan makespan minimizes the time from the arrival of a goal until it is achieved. Current state-of-the-art approaches to optimizing utility functions rely on anytime algorithms, and the use of extensive training data to compute a termination policy. We propose a more direct approach, called Bugsy, that incorporates the utility function directly into the search, obviating the need for a separate termination policy. We describe a new method based on off-line parameter tuning and a novel benchmark domain for planning under time pressure based on platform-style video games. We then present what we believe to be the first empirical study of applying anytime monitoring to heuristic search, and we compare it with our proposals. Our results suggest that the parameter tuning technique can give the best performance if a representative set of training instances is available. If not, then Bugsy is the algorithm of choice, as it performs well and does not require any off-line training. This work extends the tradition of research on metareasoning for search by illustrating the benefits of embedding lightweight reasoning about time into the search algorithm itself.
B. Cuenca Grau, I. Horrocks, M. Krötzsch, C. Kupke, D. Magka, B. Motik and Z. Wang (2013)
"Acyclicity Notions for Existential Rules and Their Application to Query Answering in Ontologies",
Volume 47, pages 741-808
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Abstract:
Answering conjunctive queries (CQs) over a set of facts extended with existential rules is a prominent problem in knowledge representation and databases. This problem can be solved using the chase algorithm, which extends the given set of facts with fresh facts in order to satisfy the rules. If the chase terminates, then CQs can be evaluated directly in the resulting set of facts. The chase, however, does not terminate necessarily, and checking whether the chase terminates on a given set of rules and facts is undecidable. Numerous acyclicity notions were proposed as sufficient conditions for chase termination. In this paper, we present two new acyclicity notions called model-faithful acyclicity (MFA) and model-summarising acyclicity (MSA). Furthermore, we investigate the landscape of the known acyclicity notions and establish a complete taxonomy of all notions known to us. Finally, we show that MFA and MSA generalise most of these notions.
Existential rules are closely related to the Horn fragments of the OWL 2 ontology language; furthermore, several prominent OWL 2 reasoners implement CQ answering by using the chase to materialise all relevant facts. In order to avoid termination problems, many of these systems handle only the OWL 2 RL profile of OWL 2; furthermore, some systems go beyond OWL 2 RL, but without any termination guarantees. In this paper we also investigate whether various acyclicity notions can provide a principled and practical solution to these problems. On the theoretical side, we show that query answering for acyclic ontologies is of lower complexity than for general ontologies. On the practical side, we show that many of the commonly used OWL 2 ontologies are MSA, and that the number of facts obtained by materialisation is not too large. Our results thus suggest that principled development of materialisation-based OWL 2 reasoners is practically feasible.
M. Mosurovic, N. Krdzavac, H. Graves and M. Zakharyaschev (2013)
"A Decidable Extension of SROIQ with Complex Role Chains and Unions",
Volume 47, pages 809-851
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Abstract:
We design a decidable extension of the description logic SROIQ underlying the Web Ontology Language OWL 2. The new logic, called SR+OIQ, supports a controlled use of role axioms whose right-hand side may contain role chains or role unions. We give a tableau algorithm for checking concept satisfiability with respect to SR+OIQ ontologies and prove its soundness, completeness and termination.
M. Hodosh, P. Young and J. Hockenmaier (2013)
"Framing Image Description as a Ranking Task: Data, Models and Evaluation Metrics",
Volume 47, pages 853-899
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Abstract:
The ability to associate images with natural language sentences that describe what is depicted in them is a hallmark of image understanding, and a prerequisite for applications such as sentence-based image search. In analogy to image search, we propose to frame sentence-based image annotation as the task of ranking a given pool of captions. We introduce a new benchmark collection for sentence-based image description and search, consisting of 8,000 images that are each paired with five different captions which provide clear descriptions of the salient entities and events. We introduce a number of systems that perform quite well on this task, even though they are only based on features that can be obtained with minimal supervision. Our results clearly indicate the importance of training on multiple captions per image, and of capturing syntactic (word order-based) and semantic features of these captions. We also perform an in-depth comparison of human and automatic evaluation metrics for this task, and propose strategies for collecting human judgments cheaply and on a very large scale, allowing us to augment our collection with additional relevance judgments of which captions describe which image. Our analysis shows that metrics that consider the ranked list of results for each query image or sentence are significantly more robust than metrics that are based on a single response per query. Moreover, our study suggests that the evaluation of ranking-based image description systems may be fully automated.
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Fri Nov 1 05:51:27 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Fri, 01 Nov 2013 07:51:27 -0500
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 8 new articles published by JAIR
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Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
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I. New JAIR Articles
M. Alabbas and A. Ramsay (2013)
"Natural Language Inference for Arabic Using Extended Tree Edit Distance with Subtrees",
Volume 48, pages 1-22
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Abstract:
Many natural language processing (NLP) applications require the computation of similarities between pairs of syntactic or semantic trees. Many researchers have used tree edit distance for this task, but this technique suffers from the drawback that it deals with single node operations only. We have extended the standard tree edit distance algorithm to deal with subtree transformation operations as well as single nodes. The extended algorithm with subtree operations, TED+ST, is more effective and flexible than the standard algorithm, especially for applications that pay attention to relations among nodes (e.g. in linguistic trees, deleting a modifier subtree should be cheaper than the sum of deleting its components individually). We describe the use of TED+ST for checking entailment between two Arabic text snippets. The preliminary results of using TED+ST were encouraging when compared with two string-based approaches and with the standard algorithm.
C. Yuan and B. Malone (2013)
"Learning Optimal Bayesian Networks: A Shortest Path Perspective",
Volume 48, pages 23-65
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Abstract:
In this paper, learning a Bayesian network structure that optimizes a scoring function for a given dataset is viewed as a shortest path problem in an implicit state-space search graph. This perspective highlights the importance of two research issues: the development of search strategies for solving the shortest path problem, and the design of heuristic functions for guiding the search. This paper introduces several techniques for addressing the issues. One is an A* search algorithm that learns an optimal Bayesian network structure by only searching the most promising part of the solution space. The others are mainly two heuristic functions. The first heuristic function represents a simple relaxation of the acyclicity constraint of a Bayesian network. Although admissible and consistent, the heuristic may introduce too much relaxation and result in a loose bound. The second heuristic function reduces the amount of relaxation by avoiding directed cycles within some groups of variables. Empirical results show that these methods constitute a promising approach to learning optimal Bayesian network structures.
D. M. Roijers, P. Vamplew, S. Whiteson and R. Dazeley (2013)
"A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making",
Volume 48, pages 67-113
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Abstract:
Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-objective problems. Therefore, we identify three distinct scenarios in which converting such a problem to a single-objective one is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable. Furthermore, we propose a taxonomy that classifies multi-objective methods according to the applicable scenario, the nature of the scalarization function (which projects multi-objective values to scalar ones), and the type of policies considered. We show how these factors determine the nature of an optimal solution, which can be a single policy, a convex hull, or a Pareto front. Using this taxonomy, we survey the literature on multi-objective methods for planning and learning. Finally, we discuss key applications of such methods and outline opportunities for future work.
A. Calì, G. Gottlob and M. Kifer (2013)
"Taming the Infinite Chase: Query Answering under Expressive Relational Constraints",
Volume 48, pages 115-174
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Abstract:
The chase algorithm is a fundamental tool for query evaluation and for testing query containment under tuple-generating dependencies (TGDs) and equality-generating dependencies (EGDs). So far, most of the research on this topic has focused on cases where the chase procedure terminates. This paper introduces expressive classes of TGDs defined via syntactic restrictions: guarded TGDs (GTGDs) and weakly guarded sets of TGDs (WGTGDs). For these classes, the chase procedure is not guaranteed to terminate and thus may have an infinite outcome. Nevertheless, we prove that the problems of conjunctive-query answering and query containment under such TGDs are decidable. We provide decision procedures and tight complexity bounds for these problems. Then we show how EGDs can be incorporated into our results by providing conditions under which EGDs do not harmfully interact with TGDs and do not affect the decidability and complexity of query answering. We show applications of the aforesaid classes of constraints to the problem of answering conjunctive queries in F-Logic Lite, an object-oriented ontology language, and in some tractable Description Logics.
V. Robu, E. H. Gerding, S. Stein, D. C. Parkes, A. Rogers and N. R. Jennings (2013)
"An Online Mechanism for Multi-Unit Demand and its Application to Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging",
Volume 48, pages 175-230
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Abstract:
We develop an online mechanism for the allocation of an expiring resource to a dynamic agent population. Each agent has a non-increasing marginal valuation function for the resource, and an upper limit on the number of units that can be allocated in any period. We propose two versions on a truthful allocation mechanism. Each modifies the decisions of a greedy online assignment algorithm by sometimes cancelling an allocation of resources. One version makes this modification immediately upon an allocation decision while a second waits until the point at which an agent departs the market. Adopting a prior-free framework, we show that the second approach has better worst-case allocative efficiency and is more scalable. On the other hand, the first approach (with immediate cancellation) may be easier in practice because it does not need to reclaim units previously allocated. We consider an application to recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Using data from a real-world trial of PHEVs in the UK, we demonstrate higher system performance than a fixed price system, performance comparable with a standard, but non-truthful scheduling heuristic, and the ability to support 50% more vehicles at the same fuel cost than a simple randomized policy.
I. P. Gent (2013)
"Optimal Implementation of Watched Literals and More General Techniques",
Volume 48, pages 231-252
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Abstract:
I prove that an implementation technique for scanning lists in backtracking search algorithms is optimal. The result applies to a simple general framework, which I present: applications include watched literal unit propagation in SAT and a number of examples in constraint satisfaction. Techniques like watched literals are known to be highly space efficient and effective in practice. When implemented in the `circular' approach described here, these techniques also have optimal run time per branch in big-O terms when amortized across a search tree. This also applies when multiple list elements must be found. The constant factor overhead of the worst case is only 2. Replacing the existing non-optimal implementation of unit propagation in MiniSat speeds up propagation by 29%, though this is not enough to improve overall run time significantly.
I. Kollia and B. Glimm (2013)
"Optimizing SPARQL Query Answering over OWL Ontologies",
Volume 48, pages 253-303
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Abstract:
The SPARQL query language is currently being extended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) with so-called entailment regimes. An entailment regime defines how queries are evaluated under more expressive semantics than SPARQL's standard simple entailment, which is based on subgraph matching. The queries are very expressive since variables can occur within complex concepts and can also bind to concept or role names.
In this paper, we describe a sound and complete algorithm for the OWL Direct Semantics entailment regime. We further propose several novel optimizations such as strategies for determining a good query execution order, query rewriting techniques, and show how specialized OWL reasoning tasks and the concept and role hierarchy can be used to reduce the query execution time. For determining a good execution order, we propose a cost-based model, where the costs are based on information about the instances of concepts and roles that are extracted from a model abstraction built by an OWL reasoner. We present two ordering strategies: a static and a dynamic one. For the dynamic case, we improve the performance by exploiting an individual clustering approach that allows for computing the cost functions based on one individual sample from a cluster.
We provide a prototypical implementation and evaluate the efficiency of the proposed optimizations. Our experimental study shows that the static ordering usually outperforms the dynamic one when accurate statistics are available. This changes, however, when the statistics are less accurate, e.g., due to nondeterministic reasoning decisions. For queries that go beyond conjunctive instance queries we observe an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude due to the proposed optimizations.
I. Konstas and M. Lapata (2013)
"A Global Model for Concept-to-Text Generation",
Volume 48, pages 305-346
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Abstract:
Concept-to-text generation refers to the task of automatically producing textual output from non-linguistic input. We present a joint model that captures content selection ("what to say") and surface realization ("how to say") in an unsupervised domain-independent fashion. Rather than breaking up the generation process into a sequence of local decisions, we define a probabilistic context-free grammar that globally describes the inherent structure of the input (a corpus of database records and text describing some of them). We recast generation as the task of finding the best derivation tree for a set of database records and describe an algorithm for decoding in this framework that allows to intersect the grammar with additional information capturing fluency and syntactic well-formedness constraints. Experimental evaluation on several domains achieves results competitive with state-of-the-art systems that use domain specific constraints, explicit feature engineering or labeled data.
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II. Unsubscribing from our Mailing List
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Web site (http://www.jair.org/), follow the link "notify me of new
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From jair-ed at isi.edu Sun Dec 1 09:14:42 2013
From: jair-ed at isi.edu (jair-ed@isi.edu)
Date: Sun, 01 Dec 2013 11:14:42 -0600
Subject: [Jairsubscribers] 12 new articles published by JAIR
Message-ID:
Dear JAIR subscriber:
This message lists papers that have been recently published in JAIR and describes how to access them. (If you wish to remove yourself from this mailing list, see instructions at the end of this message.)
----------------------------------------------------------------
I. New JAIR Articles
B. ten Cate, E. Franconi and I. Seylan (2013)
"Beth Definability in Expressive Description Logics",
Volume 48, pages 347-414
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Abstract:
The Beth definability property, a well-known property from classical logic, is investigated in the context of description logics: if a general L-TBox implicitly defines an L-concept in terms of a given signature, where L is a description logic, then does there always exist over this signature an explicit definition in L for the concept? This property has been studied before and used to optimize reasoning in description logics. In this paper a complete classification of Beth definability is provided for extensions of the basic description logic ALC with transitive roles, inverse roles, role hierarchies, and/or functionality restrictions, both on arbitrary and on finite structures. Moreover, we present a tableau-based algorithm which computes explicit definitions of at most double exponential size. This algorithm is optimal because it is also shown that the smallest explicit definition of an implicitly defined concept may be double exponentially long in the size of the input TBox. Finally, if explicit definitions are allowed to be expressed in first-order logic, then we show how to compute them in single exponential time.
G. Casini and U. Straccia (2013)
"Defeasible Inheritance-Based Description Logics",
Volume 48, pages 415-473
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Abstract:
Defeasible inheritance networks are a non-monotonic framework that deals with hierarchical knowledge. On the other hand, rational closure is acknowledged as a landmark of the preferential approach to non-monotonic reasoning. We will combine these two approaches and define a new non-monotonic closure operation for propositional knowledge bases that combines the advantages of both. Then we redefine such a procedure for Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics well-suited to model structured information. In both cases we will provide a simple reasoning method that is built on top of the classical entailment relation and, thus, is amenable of an implementation based on existing reasoners. Eventually, we evaluate our approach on well-known landmark test examples.
J. P. Delgrande and R. Wassermann (2013)
"Horn Clause Contraction Functions",
Volume 48, pages 475-511
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Abstract:
In classical, AGM-style belief change, it is assumed that the underlying logic contains classical propositional logic. This is clearly a limiting assumption, particularly in Artificial Intelligence. Consequently there has been recent interest in studying belief change in approaches where the full expressivity of classical propositional logic is not obtained. In this paper we investigate belief contraction in Horn knowledge bases. We point out that the obvious extension to the Horn case, involving Horn remainder sets as a starting point, is problematic. Not only do Horn remainder sets have undesirable properties, but also some desirable Horn contraction functions are not captured by this approach. For Horn belief set contraction, we develop an account in terms of a model-theoretic characterisation involving weak remainder sets. Maxichoice and partial meet Horn contraction is specified, and we show that the problems arising with earlier work are resolved by these approaches. As well, constructions of the specific operators and sets of postulates are provided, and representation results are obtained. We also examine Horn package contraction, or contraction by a set of formulas. Again, we give a construction and postulate set, linking them via a representation result. Last, we investigate the closely-related notion of forgetting in Horn clauses. This work is arguably interesting since Horn clauses have found widespread use in AI; as well, the results given here may potentially be extended to other areas which make use of Horn-like reasoning, such as logic programming, rule-based systems, and description logics. Finally, since Horn reasoning is weaker than classical reasoning, this work sheds light on the foundations of belief change
J.D. Fernandez and F. Vico (2013)
"AI Methods in Algorithmic Composition: A Comprehensive Survey",
Volume 48, pages 513-582
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Abstract:
Algorithmic composition is the partial or total automation of the process of music composition by using computers. Since the 1950s, different computational techniques related to Artificial Intelligence have been used for algorithmic composition, including grammatical representations, probabilistic methods, neural networks, symbolic rule-based systems, constraint programming and evolutionary algorithms. This survey aims to be a comprehensive account of research on algorithmic composition, presenting a thorough view of the field for researchers in Artificial Intelligence.
F. Fang, A. X. Jiang and M. Tambe (2013)
"Protecting Moving Targets with Multiple Mobile Resources",
Volume 48, pages 583-634
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Abstract:
In recent years, Stackelberg Security Games have been successfully applied to solve resource allocation and scheduling problems in several security domains. However, previous work has mostly assumed that the targets are stationary relative to the defender and the attacker, leading to discrete game models with finite numbers of pure strategies. This paper in contrast focuses on protecting mobile targets that leads to a continuous set of strategies for the players. The problem is motivated by several real-world domains including protecting ferries with escort boats and protecting refugee supply lines. Our contributions include: (i) A new game model for multiple mobile defender resources and moving targets with a discretized strategy space for the defender and a continuous strategy space for the attacker. (ii) An efficient linear-programming-based solution that uses a compact representation for the defender's mixed strategy, while accurately modeling the attacker's continuous strategy using a novel sub-interval analysis method. (iii) Discussion and analysis of multiple heuristic methods for equilibrium refinement to improve robustness of defender's mixed strategy. (iv) Discussion of approaches to sample actual defender schedules from the defender's mixed strategy. (iv) Detailed experimental analysis of our algorithms in the ferry protection domain.
D. Calvanese, M. Ortiz, M. Simkus and G. Stefanoni (2013)
"Reasoning about Explanations for Negative Query Answers in DL-Lite",
Volume 48, pages 635-669
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Abstract:
In order to meet usability requirements, most logic-based applications provide explanation facilities for reasoning services. This holds also for Description Logics, where research has focused on the explanation of both TBox reasoning and, more recently, query answering. Besides explaining the presence of a tuple in a query answer, it is important to explain also why a given tuple is missing. We address the latter problem for instance and conjunctive query answering over DL-Lite ontologies by adopting abductive reasoning; that is, we look for additions to the ABox that force a given tuple to be in the result. As reasoning tasks we consider existence and recognition of an explanation, and relevance and necessity of a given assertion for an explanation. We characterize the computational complexity of these problems for arbitrary, subset minimal, and cardinality minimal
explanations.
I. Androutsopoulos, G. Lampouras and D. Galanis (2013)
"Generating Natural Language Descriptions from OWL Ontologies: the NaturalOWL System",
Volume 48, pages 671-715
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Abstract:
We present NaturalOWL, a natural language generation system that produces texts describing individuals or classes of OWL ontologies. Unlike simpler OWL verbalizers, which typically express a single axiom at a time in controlled, often not entirely fluent natural language primarily for the benefit of domain experts, we aim to generate fluent and coherent multi-sentence texts for end-users. With a system like NaturalOWL, one can publish information in OWL on the Web, along with automatically produced corresponding texts in multiple languages, making the information accessible not only to computer programs and domain experts, but also end-users. We discuss the processing stages of NaturalOWL, the optional domain-dependent linguistic resources that the system can use at each stage, and why they are useful. We also present trials showing that when the domain-dependent llinguistic resources are available, NaturalOWL produces significantly better texts compared to a simpler verbalizer, and that the resources can be created with relatively light effort.
J.L. Pérez de la Cruz, L. Mandow and E. Machuca (2013)
"A Case of Pathology in Multiobjective Heuristic Search",
Volume 48, pages 717-732
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Abstract:
This article considers the performance of the MOA* multiobjective search algorithm with heuristic information. It is shown that in certain cases blind search can be more efficient than perfectly informed search, in terms of both node and label expansions.
A class of simple graph search problems is defined for which the number of nodes grows linearly with problem size and the number of nondominated labels grows quadratically. It is proved that for these problems the number of node expansions performed by blind MOA* grows linearly with problem size, while the number of such expansions performed with a perfectly informed heuristic grows quadratically. It is also proved that the number of label expansions grows quadratically in the blind case and cubically in the informed case.
T. Xiao and J. Zhu (2013)
"Unsupervised Sub-tree Alignment for Tree-to-Tree Translation",
Volume 48, pages 733-782
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Abstract:
This article presents a probabilistic sub-tree alignment model and its application to tree-to-tree machine translation. Unlike previous work, we do not resort to surface heuristics or expensive annotated data, but instead derive an unsupervised model to infer the syntactic correspondence between two languages. More importantly, the developed model is syntactically-motivated and does not rely on word alignments. As a by-product, our model outputs a sub-tree alignment matrix encoding a large number of diverse alignments between syntactic structures, from which machine translation systems can efficiently extract translation rules that are often filtered out due to the errors in 1-best alignment. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms three state-of-the-art baseline approaches in both alignment accuracy and grammar quality. When applied to machine translation, our approach yields a +1.0 BLEU improvement and a -0.9 TER reduction on the NIST machine translation evaluation corpora. With tree binarization and fuzzy decoding, it even outperforms a state-of-the-art hierarchical phrase-based system.
C. Domshlak and A. Nazarenko (2013)
"The Complexity of Optimal Monotonic Planning: The Bad, The Good, and The Causal Graph",
Volume 48, pages 783-812
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Abstract:
For almost two decades, monotonic, or ``delete free,'' relaxation has been one of the key auxiliary tools in the practice of domain-independent deterministic planning. In the particular contexts of both satisficing and optimal planning, it underlies most state-of-the-art heuristic functions. While satisficing planning for monotonic tasks is polynomial-time, optimal planning for monotonic tasks is NP-equivalent. Here we establish both negative and positive results on the complexity of some wide fragments of optimal monotonic planning, with the fragments being defined around the causal graph topology. Our results shed some light on the link between the complexity of general optimal planning and the complexity of optimal planning for the respective monotonic relaxations.
A. Dhurandhar and J. Wang (2013)
"Single Network Relational Transductive Learning",
Volume 48, pages 813-839
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Abstract:
Relational classification on a single connected network has been of particular interest in the machine learning and data mining communities in the last decade or so. This is mainly due to the explosion in popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Google+ amongst others. In statistical relational learning, many techniques have been developed to address this problem, where we have a connected unweighted homogeneous/heterogeneous graph that is partially labeled and the goal is to propagate the labels to the unlabeled nodes. In this paper, we provide a different perspective by enabling the effective use of graph transduction techniques for this problem. We thus exploit the strengths of this class of methods for relational learning problems. We accomplish this by providing a simple procedure for constructing a weight matrix that serves as input to a rich class of graph transduction techniques. Our procedure has multiple desirable properties. For example, the weights it assigns to edges between unlabeled nodes naturally relate to a measure of association commonly used in statistics, namely the Gamma test statistic. We further portray the efficacy of our approach on synthetic as well as real data, by comparing it with state-of-the-art relational learning algorithms, and graph transduction techniques with an adjacency matrix or a real valued weight matrix computed using available attributes as input. In these experiments we see that our approach consistently outperforms other approaches when the graph is sparsely labeled, and remains competitive with the best when the proportion of known labels increases.
A. Guez, D. Silver and P. Dayan (2013)
"Scalable and Efficient Bayes-Adaptive Reinforcement Learning Based on Monte-Carlo Tree Search",
Volume 48, pages 841-883
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Abstract:
Bayesian planning is a formally elegant approach to learning optimal behaviour under model uncertainty, trading off exploration and exploitation in an ideal way. Unfortunately, planning optimally in the face of uncertainty is notoriously taxing, since the search space is enormous. In this paper we introduce a tractable, sample-based method for approximate Bayes-optimal planning which exploits Monte-Carlo tree search. Our approach avoids expensive applications of Bayes rule within the search tree by sampling models from current beliefs, and furthermore performs this sampling in a lazy manner. This enables it to outperform previous Bayesian model-based reinforcement learning algorithms by a significant margin on several well-known benchmark problems. As we show, our approach can even work in problems with an infinite state space that lie qualitatively out of reach of almost all previous work in Bayesian exploration.
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II. Unsubscribing from our Mailing List
To remove yourself from the JAIR subscribers mailing list, visit our
Web site (http://www.jair.org/), follow the link "notify me of new
articles", enter your email address in the form at the bottom of the
page, and follow the directions. In the event that you've already
deleted yourself from the list and we keep sending you messages like
this one, send mail to jair-ed at isi.edu.
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